Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of presentation
These interim consolidated financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries are unaudited. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) and disclosures necessary for a fair presentation of these interim consolidated financial statements have been included. The results reported in the unaudited consolidated financial statements for any interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be reported for the entire year. The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and do not include all information and footnotes necessary for a complete presentation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”).
The Company’s unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the annual consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted. These unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, as amended, for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on October 13, 2021.
The Company had a working capital deficit of $102,268,349 as of September 30, 2021. In order to mitigate its liquidity risk, the Company plans to rely on the proceeds from loans from banks and/or financial institutions to increase working capital in order to meet capital demands, and the government subsidies for modification and rebuilding project and reimbursement of certain operating expenses. In addition, Mr. Zhuo, the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board, will continue to provide financial support to the Company when necessary.
The Company meets its day-to-day working capital requirements through cash flow provided by operations, bank loans and related parties’ advances. The Company’s forecasts and projections show that the Company has adequate resources to continue in operational existence to meet its obligations in the twelve months following the date of this filing, considering operations in Indian waters and international waters and consideration of opportunities in new fishing territories. Also, in the recent years, the Company has upgraded 68 fishing vessels and 3 transport vessels, the deployment of these vessels into operation will generate more revenue and cash inflows to the Company. In addition, the Company receives subsidies for modification and rebuilding projects and is reimbursed for certain operating expenses from government entities, as an encouragement of the development of ocean fishing industry.
Use of estimates
The preparation of the unaudited consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and the related disclosures at the date of the financial statements and during the reporting period. Actual results could materially differ from these estimates. Significant estimates in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 include allowance for doubtful accounts, reserve for inventories, the useful life of property, plant and equipment, assumptions used in assessing impairment of long-term assets and valuation of deferred tax assets and accruals for taxes due.
Cash consists of cash on hand and cash in banks. The Company maintains cash with various financial institutions in China's mainland and Hong Kong. At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, cash balances in China's mainland were $15,716,960 and $468,273, respectively, and cash balances in Hong Kong were $39,333 and $223,660, respectively, and are not fully insured. According to the "Deposit Protection Scheme Regulations" implemented in Hong Kong in September 2006 and the "Deposit Insurance Regulations" implemented in China's mainland in February 2015, if a bank fails, companies can receive up to HK$500,000 and RMB500,000 in compensation, respectively. The Company has not experienced any losses in bank accounts and believes it is not exposed to any risks on its cash in bank accounts.
Restricted cash consists of cash deposits held by the Export Import Bank of China to secure its bank loans and Hong Long’s short-term bank loans. At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, restricted cash amounted to $13,018,350 and $9,912,666, respectively.
Fair value of financial instruments
The Company utilizes the guidance of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820 for fair value measurements which clarifies the definition of fair value, prescribes methods for measuring fair value, and establishes a fair value hierarchy to classify the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level 1-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities available at the measurement date.
Level 2-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable, and inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3-Inputs are unobservable inputs which reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions on what assumptions the market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best available information.
The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets for cash, restricted cash, accounts receivable, inventories, advances to suppliers, prepaid expenses, prepaid expenses – related party, other receivables, other receivables – related party, accounts payable, accounts payable – related parties, short-term bank loans, accrued liabilities and other payables, accrued liabilities and other payables – related party, and due to related parties approximate their fair market value based on the short-term maturity of these instruments.
ASC Topic 825-10 “Financial Instruments” allows entities to voluntarily choose to measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value (fair value option). The fair value option may be elected on an instrument-by-instrument basis and is irrevocable unless a new election date occurs. If the fair value option is elected for an instrument, unrealized gains and losses for that instrument should be reported in earnings at each subsequent reporting date. The Company did not elect to apply the fair value option to any outstanding instruments.
Accounts receivable are presented net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses. The Company reviews the accounts receivable on a periodic basis and makes general and specific allowance when there is doubt as to the collectability of individual balances. In evaluating the collectability of individual receivable balance, the Company considers many factors, including the age of the balance, a customer’s historical payment history, its current creditworthiness and current economic trends. Accounts are written off after exhaustive efforts at collection. The Company only grants credit terms to established customers who are deemed to be financially responsible. Credit periods to customers are within 180 days after customers received the purchased goods. At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had established, based on a review of its outstanding balances, an allowance for doubtful accounts in the amounts of $1,168,466 and $411,131, respectively.
Inventories, consisting of frozen fish and marine catches, are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value utilizing the weighted average method. The cost of inventories is primarily comprised of fuel, freight, depreciation, direct labor, consumables, government levied charges and taxes. Consumables include fishing nets and metal containers used by fishing vessels. The Company’s fishing fleets in Indian waters and the international waters operate throughout the year, although the May to July period demonstrates lower catch quantities compared to the October to January period, which is the peak season.
A reserve is established when management determines that certain inventories may not be saleable. If inventory costs exceed net realizable value due to obsolescence or quantities in excess of expected demand or price decreases, the Company will record a reserve for the difference between the cost and the market value. These reserves are recorded based on estimates. At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company has a reserve for inventories in the amount of $16,962,451 and $16,125,749, respectively.
Inventory reserves are intended to reduce the carrying value of inventories to their net realizable value. The Company regularly evaluates its ability to realize the value of inventories based on a combination of factors including: forecasted sales and estimated current and future market value.
Each of the Company’s fishing vessels requires an approval from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the PRC to carry out ocean fishing projects in international waters. These approvals are valid for a period from 3 to 12 months and are awarded to the Company at no cost. The Company applies for the renewal of the approval prior to expiration to avoid interruptions of the fishing vessels’ operations.
Investment in unconsolidated company – Global Deep Ocean
The Company uses the equity method of accounting for its investment in, and earning or loss of, companies that it does not control but usually owns 20% to 50% over which it does exert significant influence. The Company considers whether the fair value of its equity method investment has declined below its carrying value whenever adverse events or changes in circumstances indicate that recorded value may not be recoverable. The Company reviews its investments for other-than-temporary impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the investment may not be fully recoverable. Investments identified as having an indication of impairment are subject to further analysis to determine if the impairment is other-than-temporary and this analysis requires estimating the fair value of the investment. The determination of fair value of the investment involves considering factors such as current economic and market conditions, the operating performance of the entities including current earnings trends and forecasted cash flows, and other company and industry specific information. If the Company considers any decline to be other than temporary (based on various factors, including historical financial results and the overall health of the investee), then a write-down would be recorded to estimated fair value. See Note 7 for discussion of the equity investment.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are carried at cost and are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The cost of repairs and maintenance is expensed as incurred; major replacements and improvements are capitalized. When assets are retired or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gains or losses are included in operation in the year of disposition. The Company examines the possibility of decreases in the value of fixed assets when events or changes in circumstances reflect the fact that their recorded value may not be recoverable.
The estimated useful lives of the assets are as follows:
Expenditures for repairs and maintenance, which do not extend the useful life of the assets, are expensed as incurred.
Interest associated with the construction of fishing vessels is capitalized and included in the cost of the fishing vessels. When no debt is incurred specifically for the construction of a fishing vessel, interest is capitalized on amounts expended on the construction using the weighted-average cost of the Company’s outstanding borrowings. Capitalization of interest ceases when the construction is substantially complete, or the construction activity is suspended for more than a brief period. The Company capitalized interest ofand $183,747 for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, in the fishing vessels under construction. The Company capitalized interest of and $1,192,672 for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, in the fishing vessels under construction.
Impairment of long-lived assets
In accordance with ASC Topic 360, the Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable. The Company evaluates the impairment by comparing the carrying amount of the assets to an estimate of future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use of the assets and their eventual disposition. If the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the assets, the Company recognizes an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying amount of the long-lived assets over their fair value. Impairment loss represents the impairment loss on the vessels whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets might not be recovered. The Company recognized impairment loss of $495,857 andfor the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. The Company recognized impairment loss of $1,471,223 and for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company assessed the recoverability of 1 new krill fishing vessel that was in the building stage based on the undiscounted future cash flow that the fishing vessel is expected to generate as less than the carrying amount, and recognized an impairment loss.
On September 8, 2021, the Company's Board of Directors consented the Unanimous Written Resolutions for the suspension of the construction of a krill fishing vessel and the initiation of negotiations with the shipbuilding company for the purpose of the vessel construction contract termination on the basis that the construction progress continued to be behind schedule during 2021 and the shipbuilding company may not be able to deliver the vessel as agreed. The Company recorded an impairment charge associated with the construction-in-progress of approximately $24,472,000 from this vessel in December 2020, which was included in the total impairment of assets of approximately $66,694,000. Through September 30, 2021, the Company has impaired approximately $1,471,000 of the construction costs related to the krill vessel. Although management believes this amount should be adequate, based upon further negotiation with Huanghai Shipbuilding Co., Ltd, an additional impairment charge might be necessary. As of September 30, 2021, the Company was in negotiations with the shipbuilding company regarding the details of the return of the prepaid shipbuilding payments.
The Company recognizes revenue from product sales in accordance with ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services, through performance obligations by the Company, is transferred to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to be entitled to in exchange for the performance obligations.
The revenue is generated from the sale of frozen fish and other marine catches. We recognize revenue at the amount we expect to be entitled to be paid, determined when control of the products is transferred to our customers, which occurs upon delivery of and acceptance of the frozen fish by the customer and we have a right to payment.
We have identified one performance obligation being when the frozen fish and other marine catches identified in the contract are picked up by the customers at our cold storage warehouse, with revenue being recognized at a point in time. We initially recognize revenue in an amount which is estimated based on contractual prices. The receivables under contracts, whereby pricing is based on contractual prices, are primarily collected within 180 days. The Company does not offer promotional payments, customer coupons, rebates or other cash redemption offers to its customers. The Company does not accept returns from customers.
Disaggregation of revenue
The following tables disaggregate revenues under ASC Topic 606 by species of fish. For the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, our revenue by species of fish was as follows (dollars in thousands, except for average price):
The following tables disaggregate revenues under ASC Topic 606 by species of fish. For the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, our revenue by species of fish was as follows (dollars in thousands, except for average price):
Government subsidies are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the subsidy will be received and all attaching conditions will be satisfied. When the subsidy relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match the subsidy on a systematic basis to the costs that it is intended to compensate. Where the subsidy relates to an asset, it is credited to the cost of the asset and is released to the income statement over the expected useful life in a consistent manner with the depreciation method for the relevant asset.
Under the current laws of the Cayman Islands and British Virgin Islands, the Company and Merchant Supreme are not subject to any income or capital gains tax, and dividend payments that the Company may make are not subject to any withholding tax in the Cayman Islands or British Virgin Islands. Under the current laws of Hong Kong, Prime Cheer is not subject to any capital gains tax and dividend payments are not subject to any withholding tax in Hong Kong.
The Company is not incorporated nor does it engage in any trade or business in the United States and is not subject to United States federal income taxes. The Company did not derive any significant amount of income subject to such taxes after completion of the Share Exchange and accordingly, no relevant tax provision is made in the accompanying unaudited consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
The Company’s subsidiary, Pingtan Fishing, is a qualified ocean fishing enterprise certified by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the PRC (“MARA”). The qualification renews on April 1 of each year. Pingtan Fishing is exempt from income tax derived from its ocean fishing operations in the periods it processes a valid Ocean Fishing Enterprise Qualification Certificate issued by the MARA.
The China’s Enterprise Income Tax Law (“EIT Law”), which went into effect on January 1, 2018, also provides that an enterprise established under the laws of foreign countries or regions but whose “de facto management body” is located in the PRC be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes and consequently be subject to the PRC income tax at the rate of 25% for its worldwide income. The Implementing Rules of the new EIT Law merely define the location of the “de facto management body” as “the place where the exercising, in substance, of the overall management and control of the production and business operation, personnel, accounting, properties, etc., of a non-PRC company is located.” On April 22, 2009, the PRC State Administration of Taxation further issued a notice entitled “Notice Regarding Recognizing Offshore-Established Enterprises Controlled by PRC Shareholders as Resident Enterprises Based on Their Place of Effective Management.” Under this notice, a foreign company controlled by a PRC company or a group of PRC companies shall be deemed as a PRC resident enterprise if (i) the senior management and the core management departments in charge of its daily operations mainly function in the PRC; (ii) its financial decisions and human resource decisions are subject to decisions or approvals of persons or institutions in the PRC; (iii) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, minutes and files of board meetings and shareholders’ meetings are located or kept in the PRC; and (iv) more than half of the directors or senior management personnel with voting rights reside in the PRC. Based on a review of surrounding facts and circumstances, the Company does not believe that it is likely that its operations outside of the PRC should be considered a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, due to limited guidance and implementation history of the EIT Law, should the Company be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes, the Company will be subject to PRC tax on worldwide income at a uniform tax rate of 25% retroactive to May 3, 2012.
In addition, Pingtan Fishing is not subject to foreign income taxes for its operations in either India or the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission areas.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based upon differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be effective when the differences are expected to reverse.
Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance to the extent that management concludes it is more likely than not that the assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company prescribes a more-likely-than-not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken in the tax return. This interpretation also provides guidance on de-recognition of income tax assets and liabilities, classification of current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities, accounting for interest and penalties associated with tax positions, accounting for income taxes in interim periods and income tax disclosures. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, there were no amounts that had been accrued with respect to uncertain tax positions.
Shipping and handling costs
Shipping and handling costs are included in selling expense and amounted to $213,891 and $35,397 for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Shipping and handling costs amounted to $258,311 and $356,490 for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
The Company makes mandatory contributions to the PRC government’s health, retirement benefit and unemployment funds in accordance with the relevant Chinese social security laws. The costs of these payments are charged to the same accounts as the related salary costs in the same period as the related salary costs incurred. Employee benefit costs amounted to $1,340,598 and $606,825 for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Employee benefit costs amounted to $2,970,449 and $1,795,348 for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Foreign currency translation
The reporting currency of the Company is the U.S. dollar. The functional currency of the Company and Merchant Supreme and Prime Cheer, the Company’s subsidiaries, is the U.S. dollar. The functional currency of Pingtan Guansheng, Fujian Heyue and Pingtan Fishing, the Company’s subsidiaries, is the Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”). For the Company’s subsidiaries Pingtan Guansheng, Fujian Heyue and Pingtan Fishing, whose functional currencies are the RMB, results of operations and cash flows are translated at average exchange rates during the period, assets and liabilities are translated at the unified exchange rate at the end of the period, and equity is translated at historical exchange rates. As a result, amounts relating to assets and liabilities reported on the statements of cash flows may not necessarily agree with the changes in the corresponding balances on the balance sheets. Translation adjustments resulting from the process of translating the local currency financial statements into U.S. dollars are included in determining comprehensive income. The cumulative translation adjustment and effect of exchange rate changes on cash for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 was $2,622,688 and $935,670, respectively. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing on the transaction dates. Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date and any transaction gains and losses that arise from exchange rate fluctuations on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are included in the results of operations as incurred.
All the Company’s revenue transactions are transacted in the functional currency of the operating subsidiaries. The Company does not enter into any material transactions in foreign currencies. Transaction gains or losses have not had, and are not expected to have, a material effect on the results of operations of the Company.
Asset and liability accounts at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were translated at 6.4854 RMB to $1.00 and at 6.5249 RMB to $1.00, respectively, which were the exchange rates on the balance sheet dates. Equity accounts were stated at their historical rate. The average translation rates applied to the statements of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were 6.4714 RMB and 6.9917 RMB to $1.00, respectively. The average translation rates applied to the statements of operations for three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were 6.4707 RMB and 6.9205 RMB to $1.00, respectively. Cash flows from the Company’s operations are calculated based upon the local currencies using the average translation rate.
Earnings (loss) per share
ASC Topic 260 “Earnings per Share,” requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) with a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic EPS computation to the numerator and denominator of the diluted EPS computation. Basic EPS excludes dilutive securities. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity.
Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) available to ordinary shareholders adjusted for preferred stock dividends accumulated by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is computed by dividing net income adjusted for preferred stock dividends accumulated by the weighted average number of ordinary shares, ordinary share equivalents and potentially dilutive securities outstanding during each period. Potentially dilutive ordinary shares consist of the ordinary shares issuable upon the exercise of ordinary share warrants (using the treasury stock method). Ordinary share equivalents are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share if their effect would be anti-dilutive. In a period in which the Company has a net loss, all potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted shares outstanding as they would have had an anti-dilutive impact. The following table presents a reconciliation of basic and diluted net income per share:
On February 15, 2015, China Agriculture invested RMB 400 million (approximately $65 million) into Pingtan Fishing and acquired an 8% equity interest in Pingtan Fishing. As of September 30, 2021, China Agriculture owned 8% of the equity interest of Pingtan Fishing, which was not under the Company’s control.
Parties are considered to be related to the Company if the parties, directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, control, are controlled by, or are under common control with the Company. Related parties also include principal ordinary shareholders of the Company, its management, members of the immediate families of principal ordinary shareholders of the Company and its management and other parties with which the Company may deal with if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests. The Company discloses all significant related party transactions.
Comprehensive income (loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is comprised of net income (loss) and all changes to the statements of stockholders’ equity, except those due to investments by stockholders, changes in paid-in capital and distributions to stockholders. For the Company, comprehensive income (loss) for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 included net income (loss) and unrealized gain from foreign currency translation adjustments.
ASC Topic 280 “Segment reporting” establishes standards for reporting information on operating segments in interim and annual financial statements. All of the Company’s operations are considered by the chief operating decision maker to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment. All of the Company’s customers are in the PRC and all income is derived from ocean fishery.
Commitments and contingencies
In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to contingencies, including legal proceedings and environmental claims, arising out of the normal course of businesses that relate to a wide range of matters, including among others, liability for breaches of contracts. The Company records accruals for such contingencies based upon the assessment of the probability of occurrence and, where determinable, an estimate of the liability. Management may consider many factors in making these assessments, including historical operations, scientific evidence and the specifics of each matter.
The Company’s management has evaluated all such proceedings and claims that existed as of September 30, 2021. In the opinion of management, the ultimate disposition of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position, liquidity or results of operations.
Concentrations of credit, economic and political risks
The Company’s operations are carried out in the PRC. Accordingly, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced by the political, economic and legal environment in the PRC, and by the general state of the PRC’s economy. The Company’s operation in the PRC are subject to special considerations and significant risks not typically associated with companies in North America and Western Europe. These include risks associated with, among others, the political, economic and legal environment and foreign currency exchange. The Company’s results may be adversely affected by changes in the political and social conditions in the PRC, and by changes in governmental policies with respect to laws and regulations, anti-inflationary measures, currency conversion, remittances aboard, and rates and methods of taxation, among other things.
Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and trade accounts receivable. All of the Company’s cash is maintained with state-owned banks within the PRC and Hong Kong. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. A portion of the Company’s sales are credit sales which are primarily to customers whose abilities to pay are dependent upon the industry economics prevailing in these areas; however, concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade accounts receivable is limited due to generally short payment terms. The Company also performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers to help further reduce credit risk.
According to the sale agreement signed on December 4, 2013, the Company does not own 20 fishing vessels but has the operating rights to operate these vessels which are owned by a related company, Fuzhou Hong Long Ocean Fishery Co., Ltd (“Hong Long”) and the Company is entitled to 100% of the net profit (loss) of the vessels. The Company has latitude in establishing price and discretion in supplier selection. There were no economic risks associated with the operating rights but the Company may need to bear the operation risks and credit risks as aforementioned.
Recent Adopted Accounting Standards
Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases (“ASU 2018-10”) and ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842), Targeted Improvements (“ASU 2018-11”). The amendments in ASU 2018-10 affect only narrow aspects of the guidance issued in the amendments in ASU 2016-02, including but not limited to lease residual value guarantee, rate implicit in the lease and lease term and purchase option. The amendments in ASU 2018-11 provide an optional transition method for adoption of the new standard, which will allow entities to continue to apply the legacy guidance in ASC Topic 840, including its disclosure requirements, in the comparative periods presented in the year of adoption. We applied the new standard beginning January 1, 2020. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, “Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement.” This standard eliminates the current requirement to disclose the amount or reason for transfers between level 1 and level 2 of the fair value hierarchy and the requirement to disclose the valuation methodology for level 3 fair value measurements. The standard includes additional disclosure requirements for level 3 fair value measurements, including the requirement to disclose the changes in unrealized gains and losses in other comprehensive income during the period and permits the disclosure of other relevant quantitative information for certain unobservable inputs. The new guidance was effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. We applied the new standard beginning January 1, 2020. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-01, Investments-Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments-Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Clarifying the Interactions between Topic 321, Topic 323, and Topic 815 (“ASU 2020-01”) to clarify the interaction in accounting for equity securities under Topic 321, investments accounted for under the equity method of accounting in Topic 323 and the accounting for certain forward contracts and purchased options accounted for under Topic 815. ASU 2020-01 was effective for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020. We applied the new standard beginning January 1, 2021. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which eliminates certain exceptions to the existing guidance for income taxes related to the approach for intra-period tax allocations, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. This ASU also simplifies the accounting for income taxes by clarifying and amending existing guidance related to the effects of enacted changes in tax laws or rates in the effective tax rate computation, the recognition of franchise tax and the evaluation of a step-up in the tax basis of goodwill, among other clarifications. ASU 2019-12 was effective for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020. We applied the new standard beginning January 1, 2021. The adoption did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments”, which will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The guidance replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology with an expected credit loss model for which a company recognizes an allowance based on the estimate of expected credit loss. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10. Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), and Leases (Topic 842): Effective Dates, finalizes effective date delays for private companies, not-for-profit organizations, and certain smaller reporting companies applying the credit losses, leases, and hedging standards. The effective date for SEC filers, excluding smaller reporting companies as defined by the SEC, remains as fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The new effective date for all other entities is fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this standard on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef