Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2016
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of presentation
These interim consolidated financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries are unaudited. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) and disclosures necessary for a fair presentation of these interim consolidated financial statements have been included. The results reported in the unaudited consolidated financial statements for any interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be reported for the entire year. The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and do not include all information and footnotes necessary for a complete presentation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”).
The unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the annual consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted. These unaudited financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 9, 2016.
Use of estimates
The preparation of the unaudited consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and the related disclosures at the date of the financial statements and during the reporting period. Actual results could materially differ from these estimates. Significant estimates in the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 include allowance for doubtful accounts, reserve for inventories, the useful life of property, plant and equipment, assumptions used in assessing impairment of long-term assets and valuation of deferred tax assets and accruals for taxes due.
Cash consists of cash on hand and cash in banks. The Company maintains cash with various financial institutions in China and Hong Kong and none of these deposits are covered by insurance. At March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, cash balances in China are $2,569,564 and $11,276,429, respectively, and cash balances in Hong Kong are $13,933 and $172,255, respectively, and are uninsured. The Company has not experienced any losses in bank accounts and believes it is not exposed to any risks on its cash in bank accounts.
Restricted cash consists of cash deposits held by China Development Bank to secure short term bank loans from China Development Bank. At March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, restricted cash amounted $2,208,471 and $1,577,642, respectively.
Fair value of financial instruments
The Company adopted the guidance of ASC Topic 820 for fair value measurements which clarifies the definition of fair value, prescribes methods for measuring fair value, and establishes a fair value hierarchy to classify the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level 1-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities available at the measurement date.
Level 2-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable, and inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3-Inputs are unobservable inputs which reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions on what assumptions the market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best available information.
The carrying amounts reported in the consolidated balance sheets for cash, restricted cash, accounts receivable, inventories, advances to suppliers, prepaid expenses, prepaid expenses – related parties, other receivables, other receivables – related parties, accounts payable, accounts payable – related parties, bank loans, accrued liabilities and other payables, dividend payable, and due to related parties approximate their fair market value based on the short-term maturity of these instruments. As of March 31, 2016, the Company does not have any assets or liabilities that are measured on a recurring basis at fair value. The Company’s short-term bank borrowings that are considered Level 2 financial instruments measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis as of March 31, 2016. The Company does not have any level 3 financial instruments.
ASC Topic 825-10 “Financial Instruments” allows entities to voluntarily choose to measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value (fair value option). The fair value option may be elected on an instrument-by-instrument basis and is irrevocable, unless a new election date occurs. If the fair value option is elected for an instrument, unrealized gains and losses for that instrument should be reported in earnings at each subsequent reporting date. The Company did not elect to apply the fair value option to any outstanding instruments.
Accounts receivable are presented net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company maintains allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses. The Company reviews the accounts receivable on a periodic basis and makes general and specific allowance when there is doubt as to the collectability of individual balances. In evaluating the collectability of individual receivable balance, the Company considers many factors, including the age of the balance, a customer’s historical payment history, its current credit-worthiness and current economic trends. Accounts are written off after exhaustive efforts at collection. The Company only grants credit terms to established customers who are deemed to be financially responsible. Credit periods to customers are within 180 days after customers received the purchased goods. At March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company has established, based on a review of its outstanding balances, an allowance for doubtful accounts in the amounts of $657,037 and $372,634, respectively.
Inventories, consisting of frozen fish and marine catches, are stated at the lower of cost or market utilizing the weighted average method. The Cost of inventories comprises of fuel, freight, depreciation, direct labor, consumables, and government levied charges and taxes. Consumables include fishing nets and metal containers used by fishing vessels. The Company’s fishing fleets in Indian and Indonesian waters and Western and Central Pacific Ocean of the international waters operate throughout the year, although the May to July period demonstrates lower catch quantities compared to the October to January period, which is the peak season.
An allowance is established when management determines that certain inventories may not be saleable. If inventory costs exceed expected market value due to obsolescence or quantities in excess of expected demand, the Company will record reserve for the difference between the cost and the market value. These reserves are recorded based on estimates. At March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company recorded reserve for inventories in the amount of $1,792,037 and $218,236, respectively.
Advances to suppliers
Advances to suppliers represent the cash paid in advance for the purchase of raw material from suppliers. The advance payments are intended to ensure preferential pricing and delivery. The amounts advanced under such arrangements totaled $36,059,841 and $35,994,146 at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively.
Receivable from transferring equity method investment shares
In order to improve and focus on fishing business, the Company transferred 15% (RMB 150 million, approximately $23.3 million) of the total ownership in Global Deep Ocean Fishing (Pingtan) Industrial Limited (the “Global Deep Ocean”) to another shareholder of Global Deep Ocean in December 2015 (See note 7). In the second half of December 2015, the Company received RMB 50 million (approximately $7.8 million) from the transferee. As of December 31, 2015, the receivable resulting from the 15% ownership transfer amounted to $15,406,659 (RMB 100 million). The receivable was collected in full in January and February 2016.
Each of the Company’s fishing vessels requires an approval from Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China to carry out ocean fishing projects in foreign territories. These approvals are valid for a period from three to twelve months, and are awarded to the Company at no cost. The Company applies for the renewal of the approval prior to expiration to avoid interruptions of fishing vessels’ operations.
Each of the Company’s fishing vessels operated in Indonesian waters requires a fishing license granted by the authority in Indonesia. Indonesian fishing licenses remain effective for a period of twelve months and the Company applies for renewal prior to expiration. The Company records the cost of Indonesian fishing licenses in deferred expenses on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and amortizes over the effective periods of the licenses.
Investment in unconsolidated company – Global Deep Ocean
The Company use the equity method of accounting for its investment in, and earning or loss of, company that it does not control but over which it does exert significant influence. The Company considers whether the fair value of its equity method investment has declined below its carrying value whenever adverse events or changes in circumstances indicate that recorded value may not be recoverable. If the Company considers any decline to be other than temporary (based on various factors, including historical financial results and the overall health of the investee), then a write-down would be recorded to estimated fair value. See Note 7 for discussion of equity method investment.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are carried at cost and are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The cost of repairs and maintenance is expensed as incurred; major replacements and improvements are capitalized. When assets are retired or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gains or losses are included in income in the year of disposition. The Company examines the possibility of decreases in the value of fixed assets when events or changes in circumstances reflect the fact that their recorded value may not be recoverable.
Included in property, plant and equipment are fishing vessels under construction which includes the costs of construction and any interest charges arising from borrowings used to finance these assets during the period of construction of the assets. No provision for depreciation is made on fishing vessels under construction until such time as the relevant assets are completed and ready for their intended use.
The estimated useful lives of the assets are as follows:
Expenditures for repairs and maintenance, which do not extend the useful life of the assets, are expensed as incurred.
Interest associated with the construction of fishing vessels is capitalized and included in the cost of the fishing vessels. When no debt is incurred specifically for the construction of a fishing vessel, interest is capitalized on amounts expended on the construction using weighted-average cost of the Company’s outstanding borrowings. Capitalization of interest ceases when the construction is substantially complete or the construction activity is suspended for more than a brief period. The Company capitalized interest of $113,479 and $0 for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, in the fishing vessels under construction.
Impairment of long-lived assets
In accordance with ASC Topic 360, the Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable, or at least annually. The Company recognizes an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset’s estimated fair value and its book value. The Company did not record any impairment charge for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015.
Pursuant to the guidance of ASC Topic 605 and ASC Topic 360, the Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the purchase price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. With respect to the sale of frozen fish and other marine catches to third party customers, most of which are sole proprietor regional wholesalers in China, the Company recognizes revenue when customers pick up purchased goods at the Company’s cold storage warehouse, after payment is received by the Company or credit sale is approved by the Company for recurring customers who have a history of financial responsibility. The Company does not offer promotional payments, customer coupons, rebates or other cash redemption offers to its customers. The Company does not accept returns from customers.
Government grants are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attaching conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an expense item, it is recognized as income over the periods necessary to match the grant on a systematic basis to the costs that it is intended to compensate. Where the grant relates to an asset, the fair value is credited to the cost of the asset and is released to the income statement over the expected useful life in a consistent manner with the depreciation method for the relevant asset.
Under the current laws of the Cayman Islands and British Virgin Islands, the Company and Merchant Supreme are not subject to any income or capital gains tax, and dividend payments that the Company may make are not subject to any withholding tax in the Cayman Islands or British Virgin Islands. Under the current laws of Hong Kong, Prime Cheer is not subject to any capital gains tax and dividend payments are not subject to any withholding tax in Hong Kong.
The Company is not incorporated nor does it engage in any trade or business in the United States and is not subject to United States federal income taxes. The Company did not derive any significant amount of income subject to such taxes after completion of the Share Exchange and accordingly, no relevant tax provision is made in the accompanying consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income.
The Company's subsidiary, Pingtan Fishing, is a qualified ocean fishing enterprise certified by the Ministry of Agriculture of the PRC. The qualification is renewed on April 1 each year. Pingtan Fishing is exempt from income tax derived from its ocean fishing operations in the periods it processes a valid Ocean Fishing Enterprise Qualification Certificate issued by the Ministry of Agriculture of the PRC.
The new China’s Enterprise Income Tax Law (“EIT Law”) also provides that an enterprise established under the laws of foreign countries or regions but whose “de facto management body” is located in the PRC be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes and consequently be subject to the PRC income tax at the rate of 25% for its worldwide income. The Implementing Rules of the new EIT Law merely defines the location of the “de facto management body” as “the place where the exercising, in substance, of the overall management and control of the production and business operation, personnel, accounting, properties, etc., of a non-PRC company is located.” On April 22, 2009, the PRC State Administration of Taxation further issued a notice entitled “Notice Regarding Recognizing Offshore-Established Enterprises Controlled by PRC Shareholders as Resident Enterprises Based on Their Place of Effective Management.” Under this notice, a foreign company controlled by a PRC company or a group of PRC companies shall be deemed as a PRC resident enterprise if (i) the senior management and the core management departments in charge of its daily operations mainly function in the PRC; (ii) its financial decisions and human resource decisions are subject to decisions or approvals of persons or institutions in the PRC; (iii) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, minutes and files of board meetings and shareholders’ meetings are located or kept in the PRC; and (iv) more than half of the directors or senior management personnel with voting rights reside in the PRC. Based on a review of surrounding facts and circumstances, the company does not believe that it is likely that its operations outside of the PRC should be considered a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, due to limited guidance and implementation history of the new EIT Law, should the Company be treated as a resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes, the Company will be subject to PRC tax on worldwide income at a uniform tax rate of 25% retroactive to May 3, 2012.
In addition, Pingtan Fishing is not subject to foreign income taxes for its operations in either India and Indonesia Exclusive Economic Zones or the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission areas.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based upon differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be effective when the differences are expected to reverse.
Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance to the extent that management concludes it is more likely than not that the assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the consolidated statements of income and comprehensive income in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company has not recorded deferred income taxes applicable to undistributed earnings of the subsidiaries located in the PRC because it is the present intention of management to reinvest the undistributed earnings indefinitely in PRC. The cumulative undistributed earnings from PRC subsidiaries amounted to approximately $186.1 million and $190.5 million as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively, which are included in consolidated retained earnings. Generally, such earnings become subject to the PRC tax upon the remittance of dividends and under certain other circumstances. It is not practicable to estimate the amount of deferred tax liability on such undistributed earnings.
The Company prescribes a more-likely-than-not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken in the tax return. This interpretation also provides guidance on de-recognition of income tax assets and liabilities, classification of current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities, accounting for interest and penalties associated with tax positions, accounting for income taxes in interim periods and income tax disclosures. As of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, there were no amounts that had been accrued with respect to uncertain tax positions.
Shipping and handling costs
Shipping and handling costs are included in selling expense and totaled $76,547 and $159,341 for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
The Company makes mandatory contributions to the PRC government’s health, retirement benefit and unemployment funds in accordance with the relevant Chinese social security laws. The costs of these payments are charged to the same accounts as the related salary costs in the same period as the related salary costs incurred. Employee benefit costs totaled $94,159 and $254,317 for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Advertising is expensed as incurred and is included in selling expense on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and totaled $0 and $65,191 for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Research and development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and are included in general and administrative expense. The Company did not incur any research and development costs during the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015.
Foreign currency translation
The reporting currency of the Company is the U.S. dollar. The functional currency of the parent company and subsidiaries of Merchant Supreme and Prime Cheer is the U.S. dollar and the functional currency of the Company’s subsidiaries of Pingtan Guansheng, Fujian Heyue and Pingtan Fishing is the Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”). For the subsidiaries of Pingtan Guansheng, Fujian Heyue and Pingtan Fishing, whose functional currencies are the RMB, results of operations and cash flows are translated at average exchange rates during the period, assets and liabilities are translated at the unified exchange rate at the end of the period, and equity is translated at historical exchange rates. As a result, amounts relating to assets and liabilities reported on the statements of cash flows may not necessarily agree with the changes in the corresponding balances on the balance sheets. Translation adjustments resulting from the process of translating the local currency financial statements into U.S. dollars are included in determining comprehensive income. The cumulative translation adjustment and effect of exchange rate changes on cash for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 was $(90,453) and $296,407, respectively. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing on the transaction dates. Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date with any transaction gains and losses that arise from exchange rate fluctuations on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are included in the results of operations as incurred.
All of the Company’s revenue transactions are transacted in the functional currency of the operating subsidiaries. The Company does not enter into any material transaction in foreign currencies. Transaction gains or losses have not had, and are not expected to have, a material effect on the results of operations of the Company.
The foreign currency exchange rates were obtained from www.oanda.com. Asset and liability accounts at March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015 were translated at 6.4479 RMB to $1.00 and at 6.4907 RMB to $1.00, respectively, which were the exchange rates on the balance sheet dates. Equity accounts were stated at their historical rate. The average translation rates applied to the statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 were 6.53947 RMB and 6.1358 RMB to $1.00, respectively. Cash flows from the Company’s operations are calculated based upon the local currencies using the average translation rate.
Earnings per share
ASC Topic 260 “Earnings per Share,” requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) with a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic EPS computation to the numerator and denominator of the diluted EPS computation. Basic EPS excludes dilution. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity.
Basic earnings per share are computed by dividing net (loss) income available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net (loss) income per share is computed by dividing net (loss) income by the weighted average number of shares of common stock, common stock equivalents and potentially dilutive securities outstanding during each period. Potentially dilutive common shares consist of the common shares issuable upon the exercise of common stock warrants (using the treasury stock method). Common stock equivalents are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share if their effect would be anti-dilutive. In period where the Company has a net loss, all potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted shares outstanding as they would have had an anti-dilutive impact. The following table presents a reconciliation of basic and diluted net (loss) income per share:
For the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, the warrants to purchase 8,966,667 shares of ordinary stock have not been included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share in order to avoid any anti-dilutive effect.
On February 15, 2015, China Agriculture invested RMB 400 million (approximately $65 million) into Pingtan Fishing and acquired an 8% equity interest in Pingtan Fishing. As of March 31, 2016, China Agriculture owned 8% of the equity interest of Pingtan Fishing, which was not under the Company’s control.
Parties are considered to be related to the Company if the parties, directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, control, are controlled by, or are under common control with the Company. Related parties also include principal owners of the Company, its management, members of the immediate families of principal owners of the Company and its management and other parties with which the Company may deal with if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests. The Company discloses all significant related party transactions.
Comprehensive (loss) income
Comprehensive (loss) income is comprised of net (loss) income and all changes to the statements of stockholders’ equity, except those due to investments by stockholders, changes in paid-in capital and distributions to stockholders. For the Company, comprehensive (loss) income for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 included net (loss) income and unrealized gain from foreign currency translation adjustments.
ASC 280 “Segment reporting” establishes standards for reporting information on operating segments in interim and annual financial statements. All of the Company's operations are considered by the chief operating decision maker to be aggregated in one reportable operating segment. All of the Company’s customers are in the PRC and all income is derived from ocean fishery.
Commitments and contingencies
In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to contingencies, including legal proceedings and environmental claims arising out of the normal course of businesses that relate to a wide range of matters, including among others, contracts breach liability. The Company records accruals for such contingencies based upon the assessment of the probability of occurrence and, where determinable, an estimate of the liability. Management may consider many factors in making these assessments including past history, scientific evidence and the specifics of each matter.
The Company’s management has evaluated all such proceedings and claims that existed as of March 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015. In the opinion of management, the ultimate disposition of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position, liquidity or results of operations.
Concentrations of credit, economic and political risks
The Company’s operations are carried out in the PRC. Accordingly, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced by the political, economic and legal environment in the PRC, and by the general state of the PRC’s economy. The Company’s operation in the PRC is subject to special considerations and significant risks not typically associated with companies in North America and Western Europe. These include risks associated with, among others, the political, economic and legal environment and foreign currency exchange. The Company’s results may be adversely affected by changes in the political and social conditions in the PRC, and by changes in governmental policies with respect to laws and regulations, anti-inflationary measures, currency conversion, remittances aboard, and rates and methods of taxation, among other things.
Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and trade accounts receivable. All of the Company’s cash is maintained with state-owned banks within the PRC and Hong Kong, and none of these deposits are covered by insurance. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any risks on its cash in bank accounts. A portion of the Company’s sales are credit sales which are primarily to customers whose abilities to pay are dependent upon the industry economics prevailing in these areas; however, concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade accounts receivables is limited due to generally short payment terms. The Company also performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers to help further reduce credit risk.
According to the sale agreement signed on December 4, 2013, the Company does not own 20 fishing vessels but has the leased operating rights to operate these vessels which are owned by a related company, Fuzhou Honglong Ocean Fishery Co., Ltd (“Hong Long”) and the Company is entitled to 100% of net profit (loss) of the vessels. The Company has latitude in establishing price and discretion in supplier selection. There were no economic risks associated with the leased operating rights but the Company may need to bear the operation risks and credit risks as aforementioned.
117 of the Company’s 135 vessels were operating in Indonesian waters and significant portion of revenue was derived from them. Suspension of fishing operation in Indonesian waters has had and will continue to have a significant negative impact on the Company.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In August 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements — Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40): Disclosure of Uncertainties About an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern (“ASU 2014-15”). The guidance in ASU 2014-15 sets forth management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern as well as the related required disclosures. ASU 2014-15 indicates that, when preparing interim and annual financial statements, management should evaluate whether conditions or events, in the aggregate, raise substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern for one year from the date the financial statements are issued or are available to be issued. This evaluation should include consideration of conditions and events that are either known or are reasonably knowable at the date the financial statements are issued or are available to be issued, and, if applicable, whether it is probable that management’s plans to address the substantial doubt will be implemented and, if so, whether it is probable that the plans will alleviate the substantial doubt. ASU 2014-15 is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods and annual periods thereafter. Early application is permitted. The Company anticipates adopting this update in the quarter ending March 31, 2017 and does not expect the adoption to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, “Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory” (“ASU 2015-11”). The amendments in this update require an entity to measure inventory within the scope of ASU 2015-11 (the amendments in ASU 2015-11 do not apply to inventory that is measured using last-in, first-out or the retail inventory method. The amendments apply to all other inventory, which includes inventory that is measured using first-in, first-out or average cost) at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. Subsequent measurement is uncharged for inventory measured using last-in, first-out or the retail inventory method. The amendments in ASU 2015-11 more closely align the measurement of inventory in U.S. GAAP with the measurement of inventory in International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”). ASU 2015-11 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The amendments in ASU 2015-11 should be applied prospectively with earlier application permitted as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period. The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date”, which defers the effective date of ASU 2014-09 for all entities by one year. Public business entities, certain not-for-profit entities, and certain employee benefit plans should apply the guidance in ASU 2014-09 to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period. Earlier application is permitted only as of annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period. The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-16, “Business Combination (Topic 805): Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments” (“ASU 2015-16”). The amendments in this update require that the acquirer recognize adjustments to provisional amounts that are identified during the measurement period in the reporting period in which the adjustment amounts are determined. The acquirer is required to also record, in the same period’s financial statements, the effect on earnings of changes in depreciation, amortization, or other income effects, if any, as a result of the change to the provisional amounts, calculated as if the accounting had been completed at the acquisition date. In addition an entity is required to present separately on the face of the income statement or disclose in the notes to the financial statements the portion of the amount recorded in current-period earnings by line item that would have been recorded in previous reporting periods if the adjustment to the provisional amounts had been recognized as of the acquisition date. ASU 2015-16 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The amendments in ASU 2015-16 should be applied prospectively to adjustments to provisional amounts that occur after the effective date of ASU 2015-16 with earlier application permitted for financial statements that have not been issued. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2015-16 to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes” (“ASU 2015-17”). Topic 740, Income Taxes, requires an entity to separate deferred income tax liabilities and assets into current and noncurrent amounts in a classified statement of financial position. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are classified as current or noncurrent based on the classification of the related asset or liability for financial reporting. Deferred tax liabilities and assets that are not related to an asset or liability for financial reporting are classified according to the expected reversal date of the temporary difference. To simplify the presentation of deferred income taxes, the amendments in ASU 2015-17 require that deferred income tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. For public business entities, the amendments in this update are effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2015-17 to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, “Financial Instruments – Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities” (“ASU 2016-01”). The amendments in this update require all equity investments to be measured at fair value with changes in the fair value recognized through net income (other than those accounted for under equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee). The amendments in this update also require an entity to present separately in other comprehensive income the portion of the total change in the fair value of a liability resulting from a change in the instrument-specific credit risk when the entity has elected to measure the liability at fair value in accordance with the fair value option for financial instruments. In addition the amendments in this update eliminate the requirement for to disclose the method(s) and significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value that is required to be disclosed for financial instruments measured at amortized cost on the balance sheet for public entities. For public business entities, the amendments in ASU 2016-01 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Except for the early application guidance discussed in ASU 2016-01, early adoption of the amendments in this update is not permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-01 to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic ASC 842) (“ASU 2016-02”). The guidance in ASU 2016-02 supersedes the lease recognition requirements in ASC Topic 840, Leases. ASU 2016-02 sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e. lessees and lessors). This update requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight line basis over the term of the lease, respectively. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than 12 months regardless of their classification. Leases with a term of 12 months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases today. This update requires lessors to account for leases using an approach that is substantially equivalent to existing guidance for sales-type leases, direct financing leases and operating leases. The standard is effective on January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of this new guidance.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-07, "Simplifying the Transition to the Equity Method of Accounting." ASU 2016-07 eliminates the requirement to apply the equity method of accounting, upon obtaining significant influence, as if it was applied to the investment from inception. Instead, at the date significant influence is obtained, companies should add the cost of the additional interest acquired to the current basis of the investment and apply the equity method prospectively. If an available-for-sale security becomes eligible for the equity method of accounting, any unrealized gains or losses within accumulated other comprehensive income should be recognized within earnings on the date the investment becomes qualified for use of the equity method. ASU 2016-07 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect that ASU 2016-07 will have a material impact on its financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef